[Decryption China] floating nuclear power plants: the future of ocean oil and gas exploitation, offshore nuclear power

Release time:2016/2/17 14:27:46

Committed to upgrade the Marine economy, explore the energy problem solution for the development of China is to look at the ocean and a jack - floating nuclear power plants. This small, portable nuclear plant will land a smaller version of the installed on the ship, as well as for the remote islands in the supply of safe, effective energy supply, can also be used for ocean operation of offshore oil and gas drilling platform to provide electricity, heat and water resources, when there is demand pull power station, do not need used ship power station away.

This internationally recognized "" Marine century, the economic development of Marine economy has become a global feast. Sleeping on the bottom of the strategic resources, and its wide distribution, grade is high, the reserves big, far beyond the human demand and imagine today. For more than 18000 kilometers coastlines and 300 square kilometers of sea areas under the jurisdiction, years topped the total energy consumption of China, one of the largest in the world of "blue homeland" development, use and safety, is closely related to national security and long-term development. Floating nuclear power plant, energy security is undoubtedly the future sea important options.

Mentioned Marine, power plant, a lot of people still tend to think of its security. Floating nuclear power plant (also known as floating pile) Ann is not safe? In fact, the safety of offshore small modular floating pile is better than that of land-based nuclear plant in operation at present. Design, first of all, the floating pile smaller power USES more advanced concept, intrinsic safety is high; Second, the floating pile in a away from the sea, land not easily affected by the earthquake and tsunami, even an earthquake, the source of the seismic wave will not being passed by the sea. And the ocean itself also can be used as an emergency radiator, in extreme cases, the accident of floating pile in the seawater is introduced into hull, prevent the core melting process, ensure the safety of the reactor. Because of the floating platform is small in size, they can be drawing to a special place for centralized maintenance and processing.

Technical principle is no mystery

Sounds seems to be some incredible, but floating pile is nothing new. In the early 1950 s, the success of Marine nuclear power and a series of experimental reactor power, makes small nuclear power device based on Marine platform into the human vision.

Technology principle of floating nuclear power station is not mysterious, just will be built on land originally plant installed in the platform of the ship. But, due to the land and sea condition difference is very big, the relevant technical requirements vary, floating nuclear power plant design, construction and operation are facing special technical problems.

Available data show that in 1963, the United States Martin Ma Liyi company designed for the U.S. military MH - 1 a nuclear power plant, for lack of the panama canal zone of electricity power supply, placed in the second world war to build "free" on the ship. MH - 1 a work from 1968 to 1968, and later due to the high operation cost and army reactor program termination and retirement.

In 1972, the United States, Florida in nuclear power plant siting problem, American Westinghouse electric company envisions a place on a large barge, but by the tugboat towing "offshoring" of the nuclear power plant, the floating nuclear power plants can sail along the Atlantic coast of the eastern United States float, and can be easily sending electricity to the coastal towns. But as a result of government approval delay, lower investment and other reasons, the plan finally to kill.

Sea civilian floating nuclear power plants, finally by the russians into practice. To Russias far east, or some arctic remote areas, power supply of oil and gas field development, Russias atomic energy corporation (Rosatom) in 2009 to build the "Romano soff" floating nuclear power station, plan will be delivered in 2016 and put into use in 2018.

"Lomonosov, displacement of 21500 tons, equipped with two KLT - 40 nuclear reactors, can provide 70 mw and 300 mw thermal power supply, ensure a population of 200000 cities in electricity and hot water supply. In addition, by resetting, "lomonosov" can also become a desalination plant, production of 240000 cubic meters of water a day. According to the planning, Russia will also build a batch of floating nuclear power stations, for large industrial projects, port city, offshore oil and gas drilling platform to provide energy.

Compared with conventional diesel generating efficiency obviously

With the implementation of the strategy of Chinas Marine, Marine resources development activity is increasingly frequent, floating pile of accelerated the pace of technical research, the major nuclear power companies to speed up the small nuclear reactor research and development and promotion, although there are different start time, but power generation, heating, water desalination industrialization and marketing is the consensus in the industry.

Reply on December 31, 2015, the national development and reform commission agreed to ACPR50S Marine nuclear power platform into the energy technology innovation "much starker choices-and graver consequences-in" plan. ACPR50S series is made by China guangdong nuclear group (CGNPC) maritime small pile of independent research and development, independent design technology, single pile thermal power 200 mw, for the development of offshore oil and gas field exploration, island in areas such as power supply, heating supply power and desalination. Currently, CGNPC is conducting ACPR50S small pile of demonstration project preliminary design work, demonstration projects were launched in 2017, is expected in 2020 built to generate electricity.

"Small pile of technical sophistication manifests in ACPR50S sea, adopts the modular design, easy to installation, operation and refueling overhaul; compact layout, between reactor pressure vessel and steam generator with short sleeve connection, basically eliminated; big break accident based on large pressurized water reactor mature experience in miniaturization design, relying on the mature nuclear equipment supply chain." CGNPC small pile of chief designer RuiMin on surging news said.

Little pile of used, according to RuiMin ACPR50S sea full of active safety systems, semi-submersible deep-draft design, the water can be used as the final heat sink. (note: accept reactor place of discharge waste heat), security over the three generations of nuclear safety standards. According to user requirements to provide specific heat and electricity supply, a small pile of small and medium-sized power grid can be widely used in remote areas, residents water desalination, industrial heating, heating, etc.

Due to the floating small pile of refueling overhaul cycle is long, can run for a long time, continuously for electricity, heat, desalination, such as comprehensive energy supply, used for Marine resources development when Billy with diesel generator more affordable. The latter not only power, and fuel supply difficulties, use, maintenance cost is high.

"On some special requirements, such as power supply for the island, diesel generator of electricity price is as high as $5 per kilowatt-hour, small heap will have very good competitiveness in economy." In last years international nuclear power on the small pile of development peak BBS, commissioner of the national nuclear safety administration reactor li-xin zhu, for example.

Otherwise, according to the energy needed for bohai offshore drilling for oil or limited associated gas of oil generating cost about 2.0 yuan/KWH, the Marine nuclear power cost is about 0.9 yuan/KWH.

According to CGNPC, ACPR50S nuclear power system compared with the conventional energy (diesel generator) by sea, first unit in the economic aspect ACPR50S has certain competitive power, mass (more than four) construction, the construction cost is expected to decline 25%, the economy will be better.

The economical superiority reflected in the lifecycle of the small pile of construction operation each link: first of all, the modular build sharply reduced the on-site installation and debugging, greatly shorten the construction period and can effectively reduce the construction cost; Compared with large commercial PWR ACPR50S thermal power is small, the source term is low, system optimization design, makes the engineering construction cost and power plant operation maintenance cost reduction; Refueling overhaul cycle is long, high availability, better fuel economy; Mass construction, the economic advantages will further highlight, by choosing the mature equipment technology, and industry alliance with major equipment suppliers, which can effectively support the development in the future. Industry association is taking shape.

On Jan. 25, CGNPC with China shipbuilding industry corporation (hereinafter referred to as the Chinese heavy industry) signed a strategic cooperation agreement, hereby jointly promote maritime nuclear cooperation platform construction projects. The Chinese heavy industry group is the largest domestic vessels and Marine equipment development main body, good in terms of Marine nuclear power platform. Publicly reported, at present the Chinese heavy industry of 719 has been completed to the two technologies of Marine nuclear power platform for a floating nuclear power plant, the plant layout on the floating platform, another is submersible type plant, in addition to meet the performance requirements floating nuclear power plants, but also meet in bad sea condition, platform diving and underwater work requirements.

Again earlier, CGNPC also with Chinas largest offshore oil and gas producer China national offshore oil corporation (cnooc) signed a strategic cooperation framework agreement, give full play to their respective in offshore oil engineering technology and the advantages of nuclear power technology, promote Marine petroleum industry and the organic fusion of nuclear power industry. CGNPC, the Chinese company, cnooc, although the cooperation is still in its early stages, there is no more detail, but the parties distinct character, outstanding professional advantages, the formation of the alliance will greatly promote the small pile of sea technology application and popularization in the field of nuclear power platform on the sea.

Ann is not safe?

This is perhaps the most concern of the most people. Oceans, nuclear reactors, five years ago in Japan fukushima nuclear accident on these words so far.

"Japans fukushima nuclear accident, mainly after the earthquake tsunami caused power plant, cooling system failure and lead to serious accidents. ACPR50S based on mature pressurized water reactor and three generations of nuclear power technology, a small pile of advanced design concept, at home and abroad for reference, the nuclear power plant is developed for ocean environment. According to Chinas latest nuclear safety design requirements, ACPR50S using all the active safety system design, do not need off-site power accident cases, 7 days dont need human intervention, semi-submersible deep-draft design make full use of water as the final heat sink and provide natural radiation shielding, which can effectively avoid similar due to cold source loss fukushima serious consequences." RuiMin on surging news said.

Specific to ACPR50S "semi-submersible deep-draft" design, RuiMin said, mainly in view of the reactor core arrangement, core activity sits below sea level, can be achieved with water as the final design of heat sink; In extreme accident cases, the plant can pass into the water, stop the cores melting process, fully guarantee the safety of the reactor, the essence to eliminate the release of radioactive material, will not cause the factory outside the public radiation hazards.

To prevent nuclear and other accidents, "Russian lomonosov, more also consider when designing the safety factor. "Lomonosov," one of the most core components - KLT - 40 nuclear reactors, has been successfully applied to many nuclear-powered icebreaker. Atomic icebreaker in Russia has been use for a long time, and through the test of 50 years the arctic harsh natural environment. Floating nuclear power plant design is adopted the high safety standard, in addition to the nuclear device designed to resist the destruction of natural disasters such as tsunami and the nuclear device also meets all the requirements of the international atomic energy commission, and does not produce pollution to the environment.

According to the functional division, floating pile can be divided into two parts, nuclear reactors and offshore floating platform. RuiMin on surging news said, the design of the reactor on the basis of land-based nuclear facilities standards in China, and considering the special requirements of the Marine environment and power requirements; Floating platform design reference to the design of offshore floating device with special purpose follow the specification, and the international maritime organization, the international labor organization, standards and relevant rules of both at home and abroad, and in the final of Marine nuclear power plant can pass the relevant national technical examination department audit requirements. At present, the world is to establish a set of suitable for small nuclear power plant safety requirements for Chinas national nuclear security administration is also leading the modular floating small pressurized water reactor power plant safety review principles, guiding the small pile of nuclear safety review at sea.

What is the difference with nuclear submarines?

In 1954, the us "nautilus" nuclear-powered ships service opens the Marine nuclear power applications. Research and development of Chinas nuclear power platform for nearly 50 years of history, although has many nuclear-powered submarines, but the nuclear-powered ship construction is without precedent. What is the difference floating nuclear power plants and nuclear submarines? Although the principle of similar, but because of the work of Marine environmental conditions and usage purpose is different, both in technology is put in bigger difference. Nuclear-powered submarines, RuiMin says, is use of nuclear energy to provide the driving force, mainly consider the design of a variety of flexible variable working condition of power. And ACPR50S design USES is Chinas civilian nuclear regulatory standards, using a floating platform as a nuclear power plant bearing platform, mainly to provide users with stable comprehensive energy such as electricity, heat, focused on the civilian nuclear safety and high efficiency of economy.

On January 27, the state council information office held a white paper on Chinas nuclear emergency conference, in the face of foreign journalists put forward "China Marine nuclear power plant construction and deployment considerations" problem, Chinas national atomic energy agency (iaea), director of the national defense science, technology and industry bureau chief, deputy director of the national nuclear emergency coordination committee xu da zhe answer say: "the problem of floating power plant, we are planning, must pass a rigorous, scientific argument. China is also dedicated to Marine power, so use Marine resources must be fully mining, then how to make good use of nuclear energy is our discussion, the content of the research, planning and development."

Xu da zhe, said Chinas first, adhere to the peaceful use of nuclear energy, adhere to security is the precondition of the development of nuclear power, under the condition of Chinas nuclear security concept has explicitly expounds this. "The development of Marine resources in the seas around us, for the benefit of humanity, this is definitely a proper options."