The history of diving

Release time:2016/1/5 9:06:40

It is long-standing hopes of people to range the sea floor in fancy, as early as 2800 years ago, rice suo does not reach period of full bloom such as culture, the army of kingdom with sheepskin sack, attack enemy troops from water, perhaps this is the ancestor diving under water.

The history about 1700 years ago the Wei Zhi biography of Japanese people, have the sea the fisherman to dive in the sea fishing scene description. In 1720, a British man using a custom-made wooden barrel about 20 meters deep dive down successfully on the seabed. And professional diving the predecessor of today, it is 160 years ago the British Guo Meng Bessie invented from the water pump of air transport machinery diving, scuba diving, that is, the low. The diving for the first time in 1854 in Japan.

In 1924 started to use glass goggles, and use the pump air from the surface of the \"mask type submersible\", which is a precursor to scuba diving equipment. In this year the Japanese use mask type submersible into the Mediterranean Sea at the end of the 70 - meter, successful salvage ship eight e. date in gold bullion, shocked the whole world. During world war ii, developed a special military use \"air cover submersibles\", USES a closed circulation, and free gas cylinder device. Developed at the end of world war ii, the French open \"air diving\", in 1945 before and after the submersible is very popular in Europe and the United States. In recent years due to the progress of diving equipment, drive the diving movement to flourish, engaged in diving and the diving movement is also more and more. Due to scuba diving has become popular, a lot of diving organization arises at the historic moment. The diving organization in the world today there are hundreds of, because of different management strategies and methods, the degree of its popularity, penetration and internationalization.

Several years earlier than leonardo Da Vinci, an Italian scientist, fantasy, their face when the horse faces, transform hanging in front of the horse nose leather feed bag into a diving mask, made a similar design, head cover in diving, also the use of a breathing tube. But these \"inventions\" are really cheating, as if to besides uxorilocal son-in-law, sacrifice the lives of so many people.

Era in 1690, harrys (Edmnud Halley) found the prevention method of pumping air into diving bell, he thinks that if the diver breathe the air, the pressure and the water pressure around him are equal, then the diver lung function can be normal operation, not oppressed. He confirmed that the method is to use a bottomless diving bell, can hold one to two people; When the bell sinking, water pressure begin to squeeze the air in the clock, the clock in the diving people can use the air to breathe. Zhong Jixu sinking, the air is due to squeeze the water continued to rise within the clock, so you can breathe the air is less and less. By 10 meters deep, clock are pressure into half of the air inside, so every square centimeter of the pressure from an air pressure rise to two, into 2 times; 20 meters more than only a third when the air volume, pressure also increased three times, three air pressure, that is equal to 10 meters per sinks increases after a pressure, but the clock in air volume reduction is not the average as the imagination, province O meters under the surface of the water, the air volume is only one over twenty, that is to say, twenty barometric pressure. Three meters high diving bell at the bottom of province O meters, clock air only 15 cm in thickness, in this case, diving, who though they can breathe, but there is no activity. Is good in theory, but on the utility are made white. Solution is poured from the surface of the air supply, this is the principle of harry. Harry made a small bell, after using the hose (breathing tube) deep out of the water at one end, one in minutes, one catch hose, in place for an hour and a half, depth of 10 meters diving and no bad state.

Before the advent of hard submersible, are generally made of soft material. The first to consider using hard materials is John (John Lethlridge) in Britain in 1715, he told the London a barrel making shop to customize a barrel, diving men fell in the barrel, and its a pity that he didnt leave a detailed blueprint, but his version of the gentleman magazine in 1749, published his invention of the submersible, reports of successful operation all over the world. 18, 19 century, the industrial revolution, scientific and technological progress in one day, the diving earlier by the various technical difficulties, would have been solved. When he got to watt invented the steam engine Pump (Pump) is available, making diving even a step greatly. Using the pump principle successfully used to diving, scuba diving and determines the supply air method. In the seventeenth century, people advocate using metal manufacturing diving helmet, it is suggested that using glass... Initially produce helmet even diving suit is famous German Augustus snow bei (Augustus Siebe), he was born in 1788, SONY (Saxony), attended the slippery iron filter of battle. In England in 1817, Mr Snow GouEr company still complete reservations with his invention. In 1782, have used this kind of equipment will have September 18th O cannons sank a ship warships to the collapse of the salvage of success. However, this kind of equipment in underwater operations, such as to achieve a certain degree of slope, the diver still have restrictions on their activities. He modified into sealed helmet diving suit in 1837, is now in use in the modified, but there are many divers to now still use was similar to the kind of form of diving suit.

By the middle of the eighteenth century, diving equipment and the development, but still maintain the to seizing ones air supply pipe. Mining engineers in 1865, the German architects library committee if lu and naval officer DE RuiEr garment like laurel cooperative research, their new idea -- -- -- -- -- - is to make the diving people dont in? Quot; Lifeline and can swim in the water. \"so they will come up with compressed air into the cylinder made of metal, air diving people may carry out nest mortar, is remarkable. Its a pity that the technology is still unable to create resistance to high pressure gas cylinder and had to retire. Temporarily until the 1819 years to put into practice. They can only make diving people carry gas cylinder, but still have a tube connected to the surface for air cylinders.

Second half of the eighteenth century, engineering like but using helmet diving suit or bell on the bridge pier construction engineering. When at the height of the diving the development, a series of terrorist incident happened suddenly, great obstacles to diving suddenly. Many people diving in diving, is dyed with incredible disease and symptom have muscle and joint pain, vomiting, deafness, loss of consciousness, and even paralysis, abnormal, or even a sudden die-off. Became known as divers diseases. Originally, divers in the water to breathe air, nitrogen contained to immerse himself in blood and tissue in the body, the deeper dive, the longer, the more nitrogen into the body, so the rise will have plenty of time to make nitrogen gas eduction body, to return to normal. If rising too fast, the pressure drops, the nitrogen in the blood and tissue to become bubbles. If the flow of blood to the brain or heart, is hampered by the nitrogen gas bubbles, the result will be a so-called \"decompression sickness\". This terrible mystery, in the 187 years before by German physiologist bo LuBeiLu untie, so he suggested diver rises slowly, in order to have sufficient time to exclude nitrogen in vitro, from formation of air bubbles. Subsequently O six years he figured out a diver rise stage decompression table, such as in the 182 meters deep seabed for four minutes, there must be 11 hours thirty minutes of stage decompression.

In 192, the French navy officer LuLi flow, want to design a can move freely in the water, and comes with a helmet diving equipment blueprint. In 1926, and sure enough, he used three liters of high pressure cylinder, the bottle filled with a tube, contain in the mouth, as breathing, nose clip clamps, glasses of water before the mirror. But with the air pressure inside the water mirror outside hydraulic balance, so I cant dive deeper into the water. Until generation legend Gu Shi appear, completed the light and freedom of action of diving equipment. Gu Shi, this ocean of fanatics, originally is a French naval artillery, once he put the mirror diving, unexpectedly found real colorful undersea world, great, since he was fascinated by diving, also rewritten the history of his life, the last in the diving set in the history of the immortal works. First of all, hes trial LuLi flow submersible, in the depths of the 12 meters, and can only stay for ten minutes. Later he won ships the help of the artillery maintenance experiment. On one occasion, he made a try various closed-circuit submersible oxygen to breathe, which is equipped with air filter of sodium carbonate, however, he suffered a lot, for example, he in the depths of a dive to 114 feet, suddenly discovered that the air bottle is no longer help friends, unexpectedly turned into a deadly enemies; Once again, in the experiment was almost killed by oxygen poisoning. In 1939, the second world war broke out, he FengDiao naval intelligence and service, by this time he diverted interest in oxygen submersibles, go back to study general LuLi streaming submersible, especially focuses on the study of this kind of submersible, can ease the supply of the automatic control of air required parts. He and aviation fuel engineer Karl south cooperation study in Paris, in 1943, finally succeeded in making the can come and go in the water free self-contained diving equipment. He also drove in his research ship Gary at, the worlds seas, engaged in the research of diving and exploration. He also completed the water test, his knowledge of the oceans in the world is really no one can match. He made the self-contained open-circuit diving equipment is lightweight, safe, convenient, low price and, after production, popular in decades long, make the diving by the military, the needs of the project, open up, make peoples leisure activities increased the colorful and exciting, and full of fun projects, more make the different another kind of \"world\" in the eyes of the world.

Reproduced in:

Chinas diving network BBS T = 30