In March 2011 in Japan fukushima is not only for the Japanese people is a major nuclear disaster, has also become the world powera need deep reflection and introspection of the lesson.

Release time:2015/9/29 16:36:51

Peoples literature publishing house published in November 2011, the nuclear staff last word - fukushima disaster forecast of fifteen years ago, is an extremely rare, "nuclear science teaching material" from practice.

In this book, from Japans nuclear industry, with rich practical experience of three experts (facilities piping level technicians hirai xians, the United States gm reactor designer chrysanthemum to New York before a maintenance engineer, Toshiba before nuclear power design small volunteers lang) before the fukushima accident (1996) and (2011) after a nuclear accident to come forward "appearing", detailed a lot before we didnt know or dont fully realize the "nuclear power stations in the actual construction, operation maintenance, shut down after the inevitable faces all sorts of security issues", and "nuclear power plant facing different from any other industry, and other unique security hidden danger of the project".

According to the three Japanese nuclear experts published articles and accepted the interview, its profound reflection can be briefly summarized as ten aspects. To truthfully present their point of view, the author in addition to this small title sums up ten major reflection for reading, all other content directly to quote their expression in the book.

1. "absolute security" nuclear power design is not equal to "absolute security" of nuclear power engineering

"Engineering field has true kung fu master was too small. No matter how perfect, nuclear power design and actual construction do not is the same as the original design. The blueprint of nuclear power, always top technical workers as unique Tolerate no error to the premise, perfect design, but no one has discussed, our field personnel exactly have the good ability... the Japanese nuclear power plant design, have double, triple protection, if whats happened It will automatically stop, absolute security - it is only in the theory of the design phase, the construction, the building is a big problem.

"Occurred in the kansai electric power in February 1991, the marina fracture accident, nuclear power plants throat Japan proud multiple defense system a failure, then a just 0.7 seconds, will reappear in the chernobyl accident... the last survey found that... is the errors in the construction of... when the construction not in accordance with the original design and construction, cut off too long, too short is hard to pull, these designers unexpected things, but in the construction site by happened, of course, has also led to nuclear accidents emerge in endlessly.

The March 11 fukushima nuclear disaster, to prove that nuclear power design thought whenever you get more back-up systems security thinking do not work, all possible system damage and cannot produce at the same time can work... security mechanism in the reality of the ideal completely failure... so far safety design all can not stand the test of reality... even if the emergency diesel engine work, also can only be maintained for 7 days, if the power supply of the pylon down, within 7 days of the external power source may also into do not come, or will it also heart melt furnace such as nuclear disaster... really want to maintain the safety of nuclear power plants is designed not to come out, especially unable to design the commercial use of nuclear power, because to consider various factors, the high cost to complete the effort."

2. The plant is the most fragile blood vessels of piping network engineering - like the human body

"Nuclear power plant internal are intertwined as nets, a total length of tens of kilometers of piping, like the bodys blood vessels, piping in either, just have a damaged, could lead to nuclear power plant as a whole... but these important major accident piping, is in a state may be falling from time to time... these piping by metal parts only supports fixed on the wall. Nuclear power operation, they will be kept shaking, and shaking down for a long time, originally metal stents will gradually loosening, piping become a state of suspension.

"A lot of people severely criticized me, said, when earthquake comes, nuclear power plant is not so vulnerable, as you say, we have absolute confidence to nuclear power plant seismic, it is located in solid rock plate, resist the 8.5 magnitude earthquake. but in I saw the hanshin earthquake, knew the first nuclear power plant continue like this really cant. Nuclear power plants could not withstand the earthquake damage, because of the earthquake shaking from Under the left and right sides, and grows in the perimeter of the reactor complex piping, certainly can not stand this composite.

"When earthquake comes first key is not atomic furnace, my specialty is responsible for, namely piping would not hold first. For example, all Japanese cars quality is very good, the brake of the brake pedal is very good, better, but even if these things again good, if internal blowout, is it still can work? Atomic furnace is the same... the best evidence is occurred in the kansai electric power beauty marina nuclear power plant accident five years ago. Only two centimeters of steam of steam pipes production machine, broken one step becomes the chernobyl accident. Just a little two centimeters piping, caused multiple security system failure."

3. The nuclear power plant operation maintenance and accident treatment mainly by "people" - is inevitable human error

"The operation of nuclear power plant is actually want to rely on the scene to set up some exposure to radiation pollution, what kind of work have to rely on" people "to assembly and adjustment. The fukushima disaster more to prove it, all depends on" people ", the robot is not only fragile, and what you can do is limited, in addition to the photograph, other complex work or want to rely on "people" to high levels of radiation pollution on site to do.

"Nuclear power plant after insert the rods, by running time, within full of radioactive material... the people under the heavy gear, must work under the height of the fear of radiation contamination psychological pressure, therefore cannot maintain good operation quality... lets take the basic lock screw for example: I must be warned before the homework workers diagonal will lock tight, radiation does not leak . But their work in the field is covered with the high risk area of radiation... everybody is thinking about before when the alarm sounded to leave, after a few minutes the whole heart is miss? Whether the alarm bell rang? It what screw to lock diagonal... people work in this environment is absolutely not accurate, but what do you think thatll... once, a running nuclear power unit is located in the high radiation zone bolt is loose, in order to tighten the bolts, have to arrange for 30 workers, take turns to rushed forward, each person can only work for a few seconds, some even wrench hasnt got time. Three times results in order to tighten the bolts and 160 person-time, cost up to 4 million yen."

4. The plants safety regulation - not enough engineering experience is difficult to do

"Supervision system is a bigger problem for nuclear... prosecutors often have no true kung fu, can only read the complete report, listened to the report, operators see underpants, surface without what big question for release. This is the actual status of the nuclear power supervision. Japans nuclear power plant accident frequently for a while, the government decided in the nuclear power plant configuration operational management specialized officer. They are responsible for the new factory operation before or after regular security, old factory operating license. Though before I know what the officials did not professional, but in some occasion know more astonishing fact...... a claim to science and technology department official on the spot, confessions, fear our department personnel to nuclear power site inspection to meet radiation, so never sent one of their own to on-site inspection, always find some staff to monitor, the ministry said. Teaching of sericulture, fish farming, yesterday was sent to the next day when the nuclear electricity prosecutors... the operation license issued by the nuclear layman nuclear, really can trust?

"Under the nominal prosecutors have a unit called atomic force inspection association...... all from meti retired officials. They all come from outside the nuclear field, have check the permission of the nuclear power all engineering... they didnt understand inspection and had great authority, the so-called inspection, just go to the scene to see! The association is electric power company... on manufacturers under the inspection organization is a layman, under the engineering contractors and laymen, so nuclear accident occurs, no one can clearly grasp the situation in addition to manufacturers of nuclear power."

5. The plant closed and it was hard to dismantle - "please god is easier than to god"

"If the world only starts running cannot have shut down production factories, that probably is the nuclear power plant. Because the nuclear reactor run as long as the beginning, the fever for radioactive monsters like the Chinese proverb says, please god is easier than to god heap - production, sealing, cooling, etc., all need high costs. For example, a nuclear power after the machine stop closure heap, at least you need to use the foreign power to help it continue to cold was more than 50 years.

"(Japan) before the introduction of nuclear power, there is no review of a furnace, dismantled and the concrete scheme of waste scrap... the government only intended to work ten years to close business. But in 1981 the fukushima nuclear power plant no. 1 unit operation for ten years, electric power company for the first time feel the waste furnace, demolition of the original nuclear power units in how difficult... to dismantle nuclear power plant not only should spend several times more money than when a factory, also not be able to avoid a large amounts of radiation. Reactor at the bottom of the high pollution area, each day can only stay tens of seconds, this how to operate? Demolition method how to talk at the conference table, but actually do homework is a worker, they will suffer a large radiation. Because of this, if radiation is not down to zero in the factory, open factory is impossible...... in Japan has a lot of more than 30 years old nuclear power plant, the government doesnt know the way, let them continue to operate, is worrying.

"Why not easily waste furnace reactor or dismantled?... nuclear power plant operation once simply insert the fuel rods, the entire plant will become a major radioactive objects. Waste furnace, dismantled and talk easy? Robots even put into operation, may also be short circuit because of radioactivity. Many advanced countries closed nuclear power plant in the world, just turn off the generator, remove the fuel rods. But the real key start from here: in order not to make the machine part of the group internal rust, caused by radiation leaks, even if no longer power, must also import the water circulation system, to maintain the mechanical operation. When the water pipe caused by wear and tear, or damaged parts must be repaired, so as to avoid radiation leakage. These assignments must be completely recession continues until the radioactive nuclear power inside."

6. Unable to process the waste to future - the "eternal nightmare"

"Nuclear power plant operation, constantly produce radioactive waste every day... the so-called low-level nuclear waste also needs to be 5 hours beside the nuclear waste barrels of life was in danger of poisonous substances. To start with, the electric power company also throw low-level nuclear waste into the sea... I often think, the iron drum threw it into the sea in less than a year will rust, the inside of the nuclear waste dont know what has become? The fish near the? Life? Now, the Japanese take all low-level nuclear waste aomori village of six nuclear fuel storage base. Where the government is expected to 3 million barrels of nuclear waste buried, management in 300.

"High-level nuclear waste must be cured with glass and sealed in a solid metal containers. As long as human death standing next to the container two minutes. Then must continue to emit heat cooling the nuclear waste 30 ~ 50 years, until a temperature decrease and then put it into hundreds of meters underground, for ten thousand years. It is no wonder that all countries in the world can not find a high-level nuclear waste eventually CunFangChang... plant itself after downtime will be transformed into a vast radioactive waste. If you want to put the plant demolished, means there will be as high as tens of thousands of tons of radioactive waste. We dont even know the general industrial waste to throw where, that waste is exactly what to do?"

7. Nuclear power neither clean or low carbon - even without any nuclear accidents

"Nuclear power plant are mostly in the winter for maintenance, dozens of tons of radioactive waste water directly into the sea, and in normal operation at ordinary times, also can have dozens of tons per minute amounts of waste water into the ocean. But the government and the electric power company is always readily to ensure the safety of nuclear power is absolutely, over time the national also become indifferent to the environmental impact of nuclear power cause. Workers through the protective clothing must be clean, these all waste water is discharged into the sea...... in the case of all unseen, Japan sea is continuous radiation pollution.

"Is often hold nuclear hanging in oral, is nuclear power helps reduce carbon dioxide emissions...... although nuclear power does not produce carbon dioxide, but from all power in the process of a series of review, not only the emissions of carbon dioxide quite a lot, and even a way of thermal efficiency is rather low power, at most can only use to 40% of its energy, other energy sources have been discharge into the sea or be discarded. Contains a considerable amount of gas in the water... nuclear power would put hot water into the sea, directly make the water temperature rises, the more carbon dioxide discharge.

"Nuclear energy from uranium mining to enrichment and fuel processing, waste liquid and waste soil processing, need very large fossil fuel. In addition, involving the use of the high fuel and radioactive waste place, for the sake of Ann for years Full custody must use the amount of fossil fuels, is difficult to estimate the huge, our equals in build a either construction or maintenance will cost a huge sum of money of carbon dioxide to produce objects."

8. Be ignored and desalination of more dangerous place of nuclear power plant fuel cooling pool

"Fukushima disasters graced the spent fuel pool is the no. 4 furnace problem, because the roof blasting, the fuel rods fully exposed to the atmosphere, which is unprecedented in the history of the event. Spent fuel rods are still continued to emit radiant energy, ever spent fuel rods have not so direct contact with the atmosphere...... because the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in the storage tank is full, Japans nuclear power plant spent fuel has been unable to transport in the past, can only be stored in factory area in situ... out of spent fuel rods have no place to put, cant change new, so we have to increase the storage density of cooling pool, but there is still a limit... distance between nuclear waste storage is very important, otherwise the critical phenomenon is easy to occur, dont say deliberately dropped down from above bomb or missile attacks, just the fuel rods hanging hanging next to replace the risk of accidentally dropped, or just beside the pool have workers accidentally falls into the pool will be heavy, is likely to be pressure to the fuel rods, let the fuel rod breakage caused by the nuclear reaction, the higher the density of the fuel rods in the pool, the higher the likelihood of an accident.

"Fuel cooling pool reactor and no cover, and all the nuclear power plant from the start, there is no assumption that fuel cooling pool nuclear reaction will happen, so it doesnt can prevent nuclear reaction pool, both inside and outside equipment, in the event of a nuclear reaction completely helpless."

9. The Japanese government is knowingly accomplice, there is no complete evacuation plans to depart from China, disregarding his public health

"That the so-called nuclear disaster contingency plan????????? How is the governments emergency evacuation zone is the radius of the nuclear power plant 8 km or 10 kilometers, in addition to the need for strain on regional? This is really make a fool of the national policy of obscurantism. The government should see reality, if you want to operate nuclear power plants, it should be delivered to the national complete evacuation escape plan, make everyone can peace... and power companies have an obligation to inform the national government, nuclear disaster occurs such as strain, the accident but wait for no man.

"Children of the large number of times as many sensitive degree of radiation, but regardless of the provisions of the Japanese adult child, as long as less than 50 MSV, children will have to continue to stay in the radiation environment... () after the fukushima disaster, the Japanese government has been the most unbearable improve the general public, whether adult child doses of radiation allowed to unbelievable, now fukushima across than before in our plant, wear the protective clothing, masks, gloves, four layers armed to the teeth to get in the area of radiation pollution is serious, I think the whole near the plant couldnt live."

10. Nuclear fate - overdraft future greed, against the scourge

"The fukushima nuclear disaster at chernobyl nuclear disaster from the last 25 years, the next time such a large-scale nuclear disaster may dont have to wait for 25 years, because it is believed that even if a heavy thick stainless steel reactor, degradation will vary with time, initial may assume to design for 30 or 40 years, but it is running down, because the impact or vibration caused by metal fatigue, degradation, many parts such as screws, pipeline will need more change constantly, especially the high polymer material parts such as rubber replacement demand especially frequently.

"Is terrible, such as stainless steel metal extend along with the gradually thinning was broken, that is, the so-called extensibility damage, but encountered a neutron, stainless steel and other metal has become as was struck suddenly full of broken glass, but there was no extensions such as precursor, look not to come out from the outside, because the neutron is the crystallization of the iron and steel internal is fragile, so the life is very difficult to diagnose the atomic furnace. The furnace atom, cant know too much, no one knew what was happening inside, can only from the measuring instrument to judge, but many things are instrumental, not fate, it is also a nuclear power is no phenomenon of other industries.

"Human study nuclear power for decades are just want to keep the nuclear reaction, but regardless of the nuclear reaction after may also have other side effects, such as fuel rods in uranium 238 does not react with itself, but will produce raw neutron absorption reaction and become highly toxic plutonium, half-life for two hundred and thirty thousand years. These problems in my study of atomic energy in the 60 s no one noticed, and now even noticed, also still cant solve the problem of the deadly."

Past experience, if not forgotten, t. Fukushima disaster profound reconsideration and Japans nuclear experts bring us the important warning at least the following four points:

A strict self-discipline, nuclear industry, at any time nor will its own economic interests above the public interest, does not reduce the safety standards for the pursuit of economic benefits. Fukushima curse is not a natural disaster "tsunami" and "earthquake", but "man-made", is Japans nuclear safety regulators that nuclear safety agency (NISA) and tepco hit the "red line" of the nuclear safety culture, put their own economic interests in common The security interests. Tepco has been hold fluky psychology "the plant is safe", strongly opposed to implement new safety standards, and obtained the NISA acquiescence. This lesson need nuclear power industry in China and supervision department attaches great importance to the door.

Second, the national nuclear safety regulators should abide by the principle of "safety first", must not make "security in economy" or "find balance in security and economy". National nuclear safety regulators shoulder the national nuclear security responsibility, we need to carry out "safety first" regulatory responsibilities, nuclear power and improve the supervision and inspection, to ensure safety review without any sectors of the economy, enterprise business interests, and interfered with the influence of local government, to ensure the authenticity of important safety matters.

Three, the popular science propaganda of nuclear power must be practical and realistic, must not be "only to report good news not suffer", to plant some fatal problems existing and potential hazards are always avoid and desalination. Cant put obstacles in the development of nuclear power Boils down to "the public doesnt understand, nuclear power, low public scientific literacy". For the "nuclear power complete industrial chain each link of public attention on peoples health and ecological environment will have what impact", to seek truth from facts to answer, cant give the public the concept of error, could not avoid the world is still unable to solve the problems and challenges, such as nuclear pollution control after a nuclear accident, the permanent safe storage of radioactive waste, etc., cant leave endless trouble for future generations.

Four, Chinas nuclear power development to have the overall planning and reasonable layout areas - for sensitive area and the strategic core of nuclear power project decisions must be doubly cautious. Nuclear power industry is large and complex system engineering, industry chain front-end (reserves of natural uranium resources exploration), medium (nuclear power plant construction) and the back-end (waste disposal and decommissioning) must have the overall planning, nuclear power design, manufacture, commissioning, operation, management, maintenance, accident And so on various aspects ability to coordinated development. At the same time, the sensitive area and strategic nuclear power plant project in a tricky decisions, from what are the consequences of "once an accident, state how to price" to weigh, and not from the local energy demand and investment demand.